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kspaceWhat is kspace? 什么是 K 空间 
To many students, kspace is a frightening and confusing concept. It doesn't have to be. At its core kspace can be defined in simple terms: 对于许多学生来说，k空间是一个令人恐惧和困惑的概念。没必要这样。 k空间的核心可以用简单的术语来定义： kspace is an array of numbers representing spatial frequencies in the MR image. k 空间是表示 MR 图像中空间频率的数字数组。 The common pictorial representation of kspace as a "galaxy" perpetuates the mystery. Each "star" in kspace is just a data point derived directly from the MR signal. The brightness of each star represents the relative contribution of that star's unique spatial frequency to the final image. 将kspace作为“星系”的常见图像表示使这种神秘感永久化。k空间中的每个“星”都只是一个直接来自MR信号的数据点。每颗恒星的亮度代表了该恒星独特的空间频率对最终图像的相对贡献。 
Kspace is the Fourier transform of the MR image. 
Although the kspace "galaxy" and MR image appear quite different, they contain identical information about the scanned object. The two representations may be converted to one another using an advanced mathematical procedure (the Fourier Transform). 尽管k空间“星系”和MR图像看起来完全不同，但它们包含有关扫描物体的相同信息。可以使用高级数学过程（傅里叶变换）将这两种表示相互转换。 
This is a simplified introduction. Please see the "Advanced Discussion" below as well as other Q&A's in this section for further explanation.
Advanced Discussion (show/hide)»
The concept of kspace is admittedly abstract and difficult to visualize. Over the years I have tried many different approaches for my students (with varying degrees of success). Below is an analogy using lenses that many have found helpful.
不可否认，k空间的概念是抽象的，难以想象。多年来，我为我的学生尝试了许多不同的方法（取得了不同程度的成功）。下面是一个使用镜头的类比，许多人认为这很有帮助。
Consider viewing the famous sculpture of Queen Nefertiti through a pair of lenses. Light waves reflected off the sculpture enter the first lens and are refracted (bent) as a function of their spatial frequencies. Lower frequency waves are only weakly refracted, passing straight through the center of the lens. Higher frequency waves are refracted more at the edges. The "output" of the first lens is a series of unfocused wave fronts with higher spatial frequencies toward the periphery and lower frequencies toward the center. These waves constructively and destructively interfere. The first lens has thus performed an "optical" Fourier transformation of the incident light rays.
If you put your head midway between the two lenses (at the socalled Fourier plane) and looked back towards the Queen, you would see nothing except a vague diffuse glow representing the average intensity of light entering the first lens. The light waves are unfocused and would not form a picture on your retina. You are in "optical" kspace.
The second lens reverses this procedure, reassembling the waves dispersed in optical kspace back to their original relationships. The second lens thus performs in inverse Fourier transformation, allowing the creation of a focused image.
Why don't you see an image of the kspace "galaxy" when you put your eye at the Fourier plane? One reason is that the eye is sensitive only to magnitude, while a lens mixes both phase and magnitude information together. To actually detect the predicted optical kspace pattern, a more sophisticated device is needed, called a "4f" apparatus. The 4f setup includes a highly collimated monochromatic laser light source, a filter or screen placed at the Fourier plane, and detection with a sensitive chargecoupled device. Such 4f experiments are often demonstrated in graduatelevel physics or engineering courses in optics and can be purchased from scientific educational supply houses.
Even if the Queen Nefertiti example didn't help you, the takehome point is this: kspace is a deconstructed representation of spatial frequencies inherent in the original object. For light waves the transformation from an object into optical kspace occurs simply and instantaneously with a lens. For MRI the process is more complicated and timeconsuming, involving signal collection after stimulating the object with multiple RFpulses and variable gradients. But the result is the same: production of an array of kspace data geographically organized by spatial frequency. In both optics and MRI, a reversal of this process then takes place, with reassembly of dispersed waves into a coherent final image.
References
Brown TR, Kincaid BM, Ugurbil K. NMR chemical shift imaging in three dimensions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982; 79:35236.
Ek L, Thaning A. Fourier optics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012.
Likes RS. Moving gradient zeugmatography. US Patent #4307343 issued 22 Dec 1981. (First use of the term Kspace in the MR literature I can find. He capitalized it!)
Ljunggren S. A simple graphical representation of Fourierbased imaging methods. J Magn Reson 1983;54:338343.
Mezrich R. A perspective on kspace. Radiology 1995; 195: 297315. [review].
Sykora S. Kspace formulation of MRI. 2005. (A generalized mathematical formulation that is not too difficult to follow found online at http://www.ebyte.it/library/educards/mri/KSpaceMRI.html)
Twieg DB. The ktrajectory formulation of the NMR imaging process with applications in analysis and synthesis of imaging methods. Med Phys 1983; 10: 610621.
Related Questions
If the points in kspace don't correspond to points in the image, what do they mean?
Where do you get the data to fill kspace? How does this relate to MR signals and echoes?
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